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Revista del Instituto de Historia Antigua Oriental (RIHAO)
Números anteriores / Past issues
Número / Issue 12-13 (2005-2006)
-Manfred Korfmann†, Troya a la luz de las nuevas investigaciones
Abstract: In this conference, Prof. Korfmann, Director of the Tübingen Troia Project since 1988, presents the results of the archaeological work in the site of Hisarlik, Turkey, emphasizing the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration. The excavation results are in accordance with recent research in Homeric and Anatolian studies. The demonstration of the existence of an extense Lower City during the Late Bronze Age is a main achievement of the Project. During the Late Bronze Age, Troy was the center of a region with strong links with the Hittite world.
-Alicia Daneri Rodrigo, Interrelaciones en el Mediterráneo Oriental durante el Bronce Tardío
Abstract: The second half of the second millennium was a period of expansion of inter-regional relations in the eastern Mediterranean. Because of its military control over large parts of Siria-Palestine during this time Egypt increased existent contacts and developed new ones with states and lands in Anatolia and the Aegeum. The complex issue of the inter-regional relations previous to the crisis that ended the Late Bronce Age is reviewed in the light of results of recent research.
-Pablo A. Cavallero, La Troya de Homero
Abstract: This article reviews Homer’s references to Troy (not to other cities), in orden to define the characteristics of Ilion and to confront them with the archaeological testimonies of the recent excavations. It concludes that the Troy of Homer coincides with the reconstruction made by Manfred Korfmann.
-Marcelo Campagno, El mundo antiguo: El pasado, el mito, la historia (A propósito de la conferencia “Troya: leyenda y realidad” de M. Korfmann)
Abstract: Taking into account the diversity of references about Troy provided by Homer’s legacy and modern archaeology, this article proposes some reflections on the different ways to evoke the past corresponding to the myth and the historical discourse. In doing so, three topics related to the Ancient World are considered: the question of the first king of the 1st Dynasty in Ancient Egypt (Menes/Narmer); the question of the Hebrew king David; and the question of the Trojan horse, the famous trick that made possible the fall of Ancient Ilios.
-John Baines, Definiciones tempranas del mundo egipcio y sus alrededores
Abstract: This article considers the fundamental changes in the Egyptian presentation of order and of dominance of the surrounding world that took place during the formative period of the Egyptian state (Nagada III / Dynasty 0). The principal material analysed is drawn from the decorated knives, palettes, and maceheads of the period. These artifact types provide crucial evidence for reconstructing the message which the elite proclaimed to itself about Egypt and its relations with the outside world.
-Donald B. Redford, The Language of Keftiu: the Evidence of the Drawing Board and the London Medical Papyrus (BM 10059) in the British Museum
Abstract: This article discusses the so-called “language of Keftiu” as occurs in two texts: the names in the London drawing board and the incantations in the London medical papyrus (BM 10059) and proposes a new interpretation. The names are of different origin, including Achaean Greek, and the spells in the medical papyrus can be understood as some form of Akkadian.
-Alejandro F. Botta, Scribal Traditions and the Transmission of Legal Formulae in the Aramaic Papyri from Elephantine
Abstract: This article analizes the stylistic peculiarities of the scribes in the legal documents of the Jewish colony in Elephantine. The diverse family traditions and their diferent places of origin are distinguished, proving that the Aramaic documents of Elephantine
-Mercedes García Bachmann, A la búsqueda de trabajadoras en la Biblia hebraica. Algunos problemas metodológicos
Abstract: The world of labor in the Bible has been hardly explored. In order to classify the available material and make it into a somewhat coherent system, the most serious methodological difficulties are: a) determine a term’s meaning (there are no “job descriptions”); b) inclusion of women in masculine terms; and c) inclusion of women in hereditary guilds (wood-cutters, water-drawers, priests, etc.). There are female workers in the Israelite orthodox cultic realm (singers, weilers, prophetesses, etc.), in the non-Yahvistic realm (diviners, consecrated women), in the political realm (counselors, judges, queens, prophetesses, etc.) and in services to different groups (prostitutes, sheep tenders, midwives, caretakers, etc.).
-Frank Starke, Los hititas y su imperio
Abstract: In this paper, the main characteristics of the Hittite Empire during the Second Millennium B.C. are considered. The aim is not only to provide a general view of the Hittite History but, especially, to highlight the main features of the political culture, linked to concepts such as the aristocratic-monarchic constitution, the federal structure of the Empire and the cohesive strength of the Hittites in political and cultural matters. It is particularly emphasized that conceptions normally attributed to the Greeks or to later epochs, proceed from the political thought of the Hittites.
Número / Issue 14 (2007)
-Itamar Singer, Las reformas fallidas de Akhenatón y de Muwatalli
Abstract: In his fifth regnal year Akhenaten founded his new capital Akhet-Aten in Middle Egypt, thereby crowning his religious reform intended to promote the cult of Aten to the exclusion of the rest of the Egyptian pantheon. Half a century later Muwatalli founded his new capital at Tarhuntassa in the Lower Land, as the apex of a religious reform promoting the cult of the Storm-god of Lightning at the expense of other major deities of the Hittites. Both reforms collapsed shortly after the death of the 'heretic' kings, but Tarhuntassa continued to exist as the seat of a competing Great King. The similarities and the differences between these major religious reforms of the Late Bronze Age will be examined in the light of the contemporary sources and some historical analogies.
-Roxana Flammini, Egipto y Kerma en los inicios del II milenio a.C. Una lectura a través de las categorías de Centro y Periferia
Abstract: During the Middle Kingdom, the Egyptian State advanced over Lower Nubia building there a chain of fortresses and other structures to improve the flow of prestige goods which came from inner Africa. Besides, it established a frontier at Heh, identified with Semna. In fact, Lower Nubia was under Egyptian control during the Middle Kingdom. This was not the case of the territories located to the south of Semna. Nevertheless, the Egyptian State maintained close connections with Kerma related to the exchange of goods. In this paper, we approach the subject from the core-periphery theoretical framework, establishing the role of Egypt as a core and Kerma as its periphery in an asymmetrical relationship, both linked through the system of fortresses of the Lower Nubia.
-Ianir Milevski, The Historical and Archaeological Levantine Background of Sinuhe Examined Anew
Abstract: The Store of Sinuhe, considered one of the best creations of the Egyptian literature, has been researched by historians and archaeologists regarding its Levantine background. This paper discusses different opinions concerning the background of the story, such as to which Levantine archaeological period it belongs, the kind of society and economic model it represents, and the relations between Egypt and Palestine, reviewing these interpretations in the light of the known archaeological and historical sources.
-Emanuel Pfoh, Hatti y el Levante septentrional. Relaciones sociopolíticas de acuerdo con la evidencia textual
Abstract: The dynamics between the Hittite kingdom and its Asiatic subjects during the second millennium BCE has usually been rendered as “vassalage”, especially after taking into account the treaties that established duties between both parties. However, if we pay attention to these dynamics in the light of the anthropology of so-called traditional Mediterranean societies, patronage relations may be attested in a closer reading of these treaties. Applying a patronage model within a greater patrimonialism’s framework may be a better way for understanding the foreign socio-political behaviour between the Hittites and the Anatolian and Syrian kings under their control as depicted in the available textual data.
-Juan Manuel Tebes, “Tú el que habitas en las hendiduras de la roca, que ocupas lo alto de la cuesta”: Tribalismo en Edom durante la Edad del Hierro
Abstract: This paper studies the social and political organization of Edom, the southern Transjordanian people of the Iron Age. In trying to elucidate the suitability of the term “state” for the case of Edom, the paper studies the most important contemporary literary and epigraphic sources, as well as the archaeological settlement patterns in southern Transjordan during the Iron Age. Based on the definition of state provided by Weber, it is concluded that Edom lacked a state organization during the Iron Age, whereas Buseirah and its hinterland were organized rather in a chiefdom-type polity. Concrete evidences are currently lacking that the Buseirah-based elite possessed the monopoly of coercion in all the land of Edom; on the contrary, the evidences suggest a high level of autonomy of the local populations. It seems that most of Edom’s population was organized in local groups based on kinship, such as tribes or tribe segments.
-Thomas L. Thompson, La arqueología y la Biblia reconsideradas. Un artículo de reseña
Abstract: David and Solomon, a new book by Israel Finkelstein and Niels Asher Silberman, through their discussion of Palestinian archaeology’s current understanding, proposes to provide evidence to prove the accuracy of Frank Cross’s more than 30 year old revision of Martin Noth’s theory of a “Deuteronomistic History.” The authors attempt to confirm the history of the redaction of the biblical narratives about Saul, David and Solomon, involving seven distinct oral and four written strata of tradition. Their argument moreover claims the warrant to assert the historicity of each of these legendary kings of Israel. The present article argues to the contrary that the “archaeological evidence” proposed does not support such a redaction history nor establish the historicity of either the biblical figures or their stories, but that the harmony of biblical and archaeological issues is circular and illegitimate by the standards of historical research. It argues, moreover, that the claim of an oral tradition, reflecting original memories of an historical David or Saul is an entirely unnecessary and unlikely explanation for the origins of both the figures and their tales in the stories of 1-2 Samuel and 1 Kings. It moreover argues that the hypothesis of a redaction history in a succession of four cumulative revisions, beginning in the eighth century and completed in the sixth to fourth century, BCE—lacking as it does reference to a readable text—is neither critical nor falsifiable. Finally, Finkelstein and Silberman’s book is judged as an unsuccessful attempt to return to the methods of “biblical archaeology” that were legitimately impeached in the mid-1970s.